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wings drooping like two arms, and, as their tails project from their body in a line with the legs, the
resemblance to a human figure is very striking, and would be apt to deceive the spectator at a casual glance or
in the gloom of the evening. The royal penguins which we met with on Kerguelen's Land were rather larger
than a goose. The other kinds are the macaroni, the jackass, and the rookery penguin. These are much smaller,
less beautiful in plumage, and different in other respects.
Besides the penguin many other birds are here to be found, among which may be mentioned sea-hens, blue
peterels, teal, ducks, Port Egmont hens, shags, Cape pigeons, the nelly, sea swallows, terns, sea gulls, Mother
Carey's chickens, Mother Carey's geese, or the great peterel, and, lastly, the albatross.
The great peterel is as large as the common albatross, and is carnivorous. It is frequently called the
break-bones, or osprey peterel. They are not at all shy, and, when properly cooked, are palatable food. In
flying they sometimes sail very close to the surface of the water, with the wings expanded, without appearing
to move them in the least degree, or make any exertion with them whatever.
The albatross is one of the largest and fiercest of the South Sea birds. It is of the gull species, and takes its
prey on the wing, never coming on land except for the purpose of breeding. Between this bird and the penguin
the most singular friendship exists. Their nests are constructed with great uniformity upon a plan concerted
between the two species- that of the albatross being placed in the centre of a little square formed by the nests
of four penguins. Navigators have agreed in calling an assemblage of such encampments a rookery. These
rookeries have been often described, but as my readers may not all have seen these descriptions, and as I shall
have occasion hereafter to speak of the penguin and albatross, it will not be amiss to say something here of
their mode of building and living.
When the season for incubation arrives, the birds assemble in vast numbers, and for some days appear to be
deliberating upon the proper course to be pursued. At length they proceed to action. A level piece of ground is
selected, of suitable extent, usually comprising three or four acres, and situated as near the sea as possible,
being still beyond its reach. The spot is chosen with reference to its evenness of surface, and that is preferred
which is the least encumbered with stones. This matter being arranged, the birds proceed, with one accord,
and actuated apparently by one mind, to trace out, with mathematical accuracy, either a square or other
parallelogram, as may best suit the nature of the ground, and of just sufficient size to accommodate easily all
the birds assembled, and no more- in this particular seeming determined upon preventing the access of future
stragglers who have not participated in the labor of the encampment. One side of the place thus marked out
runs parallel with the water's edge, and is left open for ingress or egress.
Having defined the limits of the rookery, the colony now begin to clear it of every species of rubbish, picking
up stone by stone, and carrying them outside of the lines, and close by them, so as to form a wall on the three
inland sides. Just within this wall a perfectly level and smooth walk is formed, from six to eight feet wide, and
extending around the encampment- thus serving the purpose of a general promenade.
The next process is to partition out the whole area into small squares exactly equal in size. This is done by
forming narrow paths, very smooth, and crossing each other at right angles throughout the entire extent of the
rookery. At each intersection of these paths the nest of an albatross is constructed, and a penguin's nest in the
CHAPTER 14 63
centre of each square- thus every penguin is surrounded by four albatrosses, and each albatross by a like
number of penguins. The penguin's nest consists of a hole in the earth, very shallow, being only just of
sufficient depth to keep her single egg from rolling. The albatross is somewhat less simple in her
arrangements, erecting a hillock about a foot high and two in diameter. This is made of earth, seaweed, and
shells. On its summit she builds her nest.
The birds take especial care never to leave their nests unoccupied for an instant during the period of
incubation, or, indeed, until the young progeny are sufficiently strong to take care of themselves. While the
male is absent at sea in search of food, the female remains on duty, and it is only upon the return of her
partner that she ventures abroad. The eggs are never left uncovered at all -- while one bird leaves the nest the
other nestling in by its side. This precaution is rendered necessary by the thieving propensities prevalent in the
rookery, the inhabitants making no scruple to purloin each other's eggs at every good opportunity.
Although there are some rookeries in which the penguin and albatross are the sole population, yet in most of
them a variety of oceanic birds are to be met with, enjoying all the privileges of citizenship, and scattering
their nests here and there, wherever they can find room, never interfering, however, with the stations of the
larger species. The appearance of such encampments, when seen from a distance, is exceedingly singular. The
whole atmosphere just above the settlement is darkened with the immense number of the albatross (mingled
with the smaller tribes) which are continually hovering over it, either going to the ocean or returning home. At
the same time a crowd of penguins are to be observed, some passing to and fro in the narrow alleys, and some
marching with the military strut so peculiar to them, around the general promenade ground which encircles
the rookery. In short, survey it as we will, nothing can be more astonishing than the spirit of reflection evinced
by these feathered beings, and nothing surely can be better calculated to elicit reflection in every
well-regulated human intellect.
On the morning after our arrival in Christmas Harbour the chief mate, Mr. Patterson, took the boats, and
(although it was somewhat early in the season) went in search of seal, leaving the captain and a young relation
of his on a point of barren land to the westward, they having some business, whose nature I could not
ascertain, to transact in the interior of the island. Captain Guy took with him a bottle, in which was a sealed
letter, and made his way from the point on which he was set on shore toward one of the highest peaks in the
place. It is probable that his design was to leave the letter on that height for some vessel which he expected to
come after him. As soon as we lost sight of him we proceeded (Peters and myself being in the mate's boat) on
our cruise around the coast, looking for seal. In this business we were occupied about three weeks, examining [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]